When buying modern circuit breakers, you need to know that they cannot be repaired, since they are made in a molded case, the parts are not interchangeable. It is not difficult to acquire new electrical devices - they are sold in any hardware store and their cost is very affordable.
- How does a circuit breaker work
- Main problems
- The device knocks out for no apparent reason
- Triggering when the load is switched on
- The machine does not turn on
- Jammed lever
- With a short circuit, the machine does not turn off
- Reasons for knocking out the machine
- Machine defect
- Defective household appliances
- Incorrect operation of lighting devices
- Defects in the wiring
- How to extend the life of a circuit breaker
- Checking the circuit breaker
How does a circuit breaker work
Before finding out the main reasons why the circuit breakers fail, it is recommended that you familiarize yourself with the device and the principle of operation of the unit. The machine includes several electromagnetic disconnectors, thermal disconnectors and power contacts.
The peculiarity of the thermal disconnector is reduced to slow operation when the rated current is exceeded. The electromagnetic device is triggered in a fraction of a second in case of overcurrent or short circuit.
The structure includes a small number of parts. Circuit breaker owners face three main types of breakdowns:
- knocks out;
- not cocked;
- does not turn off.
If the machine knocks out regularly, this may indicate a sharp loss of voltage, or when a powerful household appliance is turned on, one of the circuits is disconnected from the supply line. The machine may also not turn on for the following reasons:
- The wires have burnt off the machine or simply melted.
- The lever is not cocked because it is jammed.
- When the lever is cocked, it immediately goes down, voltage does not appear at all or appears for a short period of time.
All of the above malfunctions require immediate solution, otherwise the likelihood of fire increases.
The device knocks out for no apparent reason
Regularly, the machine may turn off due to voltage surges in the supply network or as a result of incorrect operation of the thermal disconnector. The first problem can be eliminated only by a voltage regulator mounted at the input to the machine, but this requires large financial costs. The reason for tripping by the thermal disconnector is a prolonged, but insignificant deviation in the value of the rated current.
As a rule, this does not indicate a breakdown of the electrical device, but about its improper use. For example, if a machine crackles, buzzes or smells unpleasant, it is overloaded. Also, the cause may be the opening of the contacts.
To fix the problem, you can try to check the tightness of the wire and, if necessary, get it out to clean the contacts from carbon deposits and oxides, then tighten it again. The problem cannot be solved without first disassembling the machine. If it is not possible to carry out the procedure, it is better to purchase a new device.
Triggering when the load is switched on
If the machine does not behave correctly when turning on a certain household or lighting device, the problem lies in the device itself or the wire leading to the source of the problem.A short circuit occurs as a result of a violation of the integrity of the insulating layer of the cable.
To solve the problem, it is required to carry out diagnostics, replace the main line cable with a temporary one. If this helps, you will have to fully check the wiring around the house and upgrade or replace it.
The machine does not turn on
If a person tries to raise the lever, and it automatically drops down again, this may indicate the presence of a short circuit or mechanical wear of the working units of the unit. You can make sure of this quite simply - you should ring the supply phase to zero with an indicator screwdriver or an ohmmeter. To solve the problem, the insulating layer is restored or the cable is replaced, if there is no short circuit, a complete replacement of the equipment will be required.
There is a problem when it is simply not possible to move the lever from the lower position. There is only one explanation for this - the contact drive mechanism has jammed. A problem may arise as a result of the device shutting down under load, or splashes have jammed the moving contact, a strong arc has formed. As a rule, to solve the problem, you need to install a new machine.
With a short circuit, the machine does not turn off
There are two most common reasons for the lack of response to short-circuit:
- The mechanism of the electromagnetic disconnector is jammed or out of order.
- Contacts stuck as a result of overheating and arcing during openings.
To fix the problem, you need to install a new machine.
Reasons for knocking out the machine
There are 5 main reasons why the machine knocks out in the apartment, and it does not turn on:
- A short circuit has occurred in the electrical wiring.
- Overload of the electrical line.
- Faulty lighting fixtures or one of them.
- Breakdown of the circuit breaker.
- Incorrect operation of one of the electrical devices.
The probability that the device was purchased and installed with defects is negligible, especially if the preference was given to branded models. The only effective way to check the operability of the machine is to install a new one in its place. If the new device also knocks out, the reason is completely different.
Like other electrical devices, a circuit breaker has its own service life. Component wear will result in decreased performance and performance.
Defective household appliances
Household appliances can also cause the machine to be knocked out. You can verify this in the following ways:
- Remove all connected household appliances from the sockets.
- If the machine is not knocked out, gradually you need to connect one electrical device at a time.
- As soon as the machine turns off, it will be clear which of the devices is faulty.
If some household appliances are directly connected, such as dishwashers or air conditioners, they can only be de-energized at the switchboard.
Incorrect operation of lighting devices
There are situations when the machine knocks out with the inclusion of the lighting device. This indicates a malfunction of the chandelier.
- Short circuit in the lamp base. Unscrew all the bulbs and connect them one by one.
- Poor contact between the wiring inside the chandelier and the power supply conductor.
With the rapid growth in popularity of LED lamps, the problem of knocking out machines is becoming a common problem. This is due to the presence of a transformer designed to operate at 12 volts. To solve the problem, you need to install a new lighting fixture or purchase another transformer.
Defects in the wiring
If the reason is in the wiring, there may be two problems:
- Deterioration of the insulating material in the conductor.
- Bad contacts.
The first case is more complicated in comparison with the second. As a rule, it also applies to a short circuit. It is impossible to find a KZ site without special equipment. In the latter case, it is enough to disassemble the socket and clean the contacts.
How to extend the life of a circuit breaker
- Do not turn off a device that is under load.
- Do not overload the protected line with a current higher than the rated one.
When current flows through the contacts, and they are about to be disconnected, an arc is formed. As a result, the operating period of the equipment is shortened, the contacts quickly fail and become carbonized.
Checking the circuit breaker
You can make sure that the circuit breaker is working on your own without using special equipment. To do this, adhere to the following algorithm of actions:
- Completely de-energize the panel in an apartment, office, country house, etc.
- Disconnect the circuit breaker.
- Proceed to adjust the machine lever. Its activation and deactivation should be accompanied by a characteristic click.
If no sounds come out, the device is defective and needs to be replaced. If the sound is heard, it is required to measure the resistance level at the terminals between the switches. When the position is on, the value should be close to zero, and when it is off, on the contrary, to infinity.
A circuit breaker is an extremely convenient and functional electrical part that makes the use of electricity safer. It is recommended to purchase them in specialized stores, where only certified and original products are sold.